Unleash Your Business By Installing Odoo 17 On Your Ubuntu System

Unleash Your Business By Installing Odoo 17 On Your Ubuntu System

Odoo Ubuntu Install
Odoo Ubuntu Install

How to Install Odoo 17 On Your Ubuntu System?

Odoo 17 is the latest version of Odoo, an open-source enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. It offers a suite of integrated business applications that manage various aspects of a company’s operations

Installing Odoo 17 on Ubuntu can be done in a few different ways, depending on your needs and preferences.
Here are two common methods:

Method 1: Using the Official Odoo Repository

1. This is the easiest method and is recommended for most users.
Update your system by using this command:

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

2. Add the Odoo repository:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:odoo/odoo-17

3. Update the package list again:

sudo apt update

4. Install Odoo:

sudo apt install odoo-17

5. Start Odoo:

sudo systemctl start odoo

6. Open your web browser and go to http://localhost:8069

You should now see the Odoo login screen.

Method 2: Using a Virtual Environment and Python

This method is recommended if you want to isolate Odoo from the rest of your system.

1. Install Python 3 and virtualenv:

sudo apt install python3 python3-pip
sudo pip3 install virtualenv

2. Create a virtual environment:

virtualenv odoo-17-venv

3. Activate the virtual environment:

source odoo-17-venv/bin/activate

4. Install Odoo:

pip3 install odoo

5. Create a special system user named “odoo” to run the Odoo application:

sudo adduser --system --no-create-home odoo

adduser: The command to create a new user account.
–system: Specifies that this user is a system user, without a login shell or home directory.
–no-create-home: Prevents the creation of a home directory for this user, as it’s not needed for system users.


6. Change the ownership of the Odoo directory (located at /opt/odoo) to the newly created “odoo” user.:

sudo chown -R odoo:odoo /opt/odoo

7. Initialize the Odoo database:

odoo --db-host=localhost --db-user=odoo --db-password=odoo --db-name=odoo17

8. Start Odoo:


9. Open your web browser and go to http://localhost:8069
The 8069 in the URL http://localhost:8069 is typically the same port number used by Odoo by default.
You should now see the Odoo login screen.
Here are some additional tips for installing Odoo on Ubuntu:

  • Make sure you have at least 2GB of RAM and 10GB of disk space available.
  • You can change the port that Odoo runs on by editing the odoo.conf file.
  • You can install additional Odoo modules by using the odoo addons install command.

Addons in Odoo are extensions or modules that add new features and functionalities to the core Odoo platform. They’re designed to expand Odoo’s capabilities, allowing you to tailor it to your specific business needs.

Commands for Managing Addons:

Installs a specific addon from the Odoo App Store or a local repository:

odoo addons install <addon_name>

Installs an addon from a local file path:

odoo addons install path/to/addon

Updates an installed addon to its latest version.

odoo addons update <addon_name>+

Shows a list of all installed addons.

odoo addons list

Removes an installed addon.

odoo addons uninstall <addon_name>: 

While there’s no direct command, you can enable or disable addons from the Odoo web interface under Apps > Apps.

Updates all installed addons to their latest compatible versions.

odoo -u all

Updates a specific module without upgrading Odoo itself.

odoo -u <module_name>

It’s recommended to create backups of your database before making significant changes to Odoo’s modules.


Overall, Odoo 17 offers a robust and versatile ERP solution with significant advancements in functionality, usability, and security. It caters to the needs of various businesses looking to streamline operations, improve efficiency, and gain a competitive edge.

What Is New in .NET 8 – Insights? Supercharged With New Features and Optimized the Old One

What Is New in .NET 8 – Insights? Supercharged With New Features and Optimized the Old One

NET 8 Feautures
NET 8 Feautures

.NET 8: Diving Deeper into the New Features

.NET 8 arrived in November 2023, bringing a wave of exciting new features and improvements across the entire platform.

Added new Dynamic Profile-Guided Optimization (PGO):

Imagine a personal trainer for your code. PGO analyzes how your app runs in real-world scenarios and identifies areas for improvement. Then, it rewrites sections of your code to squeeze out every ounce of performance, potentially boosting speed by up to 20%.
Imagine your code as an athlete, and PGO as its personal trainer:

  1. Profiling the Athlete (Code): The trainer observes the athlete’s training routine, identifying frequently used muscles and areas that need strengthening. PGO monitors your application’s execution in real-world scenarios, gathering data on how often different code paths are taken and which parts consume the most resources.

  2. Tailoring the Workout Plan (Code Optimization): The trainer designs a custom workout plan to target those specific areas, aiming for optimal performance. PGO analyzes the collected data and identifies code sections that can be optimized for speed or memory usage. It then rewrites those sections, often using techniques like reordering instructions, inlining functions, or specializing code for common usage patterns.

  3. Achieving Peak Performance (Optimized Code): Over time, the athlete’s training becomes more efficient, leading to faster race times and stronger performance. Your application’s performance improves, resulting in faster startup times, quicker response times, and smoother user experiences.

Key Benefits of PGO:

  • Significant performance gains, often up to 20%
  • Tailored optimizations based on real-world usage patterns
  • Improved efficiency in both startup and runtime
  • Potential for reduced hardware costs due to better resource utilization
A large e-commerce website uses PGO to optimize its product search algorithm. PGO identifies that certain product filters are used more frequently than others. It rewrites the code to prioritize those filters, leading to faster search results for the most common queries. Customers experience noticeably faster search times and a more responsive shopping experience.

Key Benefits of PGO:

  • Significant performance gains, often up to 20%
  • Tailored optimizations based on real-world usage patterns
  • Improved efficiency in both startup and runtime
  • Potential for reduced hardware costs due to better resource utilization
A large e-commerce website uses PGO to optimize its product search algorithm. PGO identifies that certain product filters are used more frequently than others. It rewrites the code to prioritize those filters, leading to faster search results for the most common queries. Customers experience noticeably faster search times and a more responsive shopping experience.

“Sharper tongue” in JIT Compilation

Think of the JIT compiler as a translator, turning your high-level C# code into machine instructions on the fly. In .NET 8, the translator has been upgraded with a sharper tongue, spitting out more efficient instructions and reducing startup times, especially in containerized environments where apps run in isolated units. Imagine the JIT compiler as a multilingual translator:
  1. Receiving the Message (Code Execution):
    • Your application, written in C#, starts running like a tourist speaking their native language.
    • The JIT compiler, like a skilled translator, steps in to interpret the C# code and convert it into machine language that the computer hardware understands.
  2. Sharpening the Translation Skills (Improved JIT in .NET 8):
    • In .NET 8, the translator has undergone extensive training, mastering new techniques and idioms to deliver more efficient and accurate translations.
    • This results in faster and more optimized machine code, especially during the initial translation phase when the application starts up.
  3. Clearer and Faster Communication (Optimized Code Execution):
    • The translated instructions flow smoothly to the hardware, enabling tasks to be executed quickly and efficiently.
    • Computer hardware component processing instructions rapidly
    • The enhanced JIT compiler particularly benefits containerized environments, where applications often need to start up frequently and quickly.
  4. Key Benefits of Improved JIT Compilation:
    • Significantly faster startup times, often up to 30%
    • Reduced memory usage due to more efficient code generation
    • Improved performance in containerized environments
    • Better responsiveness for applications with frequent code paths
.NET 8’s improved JIT compiler significantly reduces those startup times, making the application much more responsive to user requests. This leads to smoother user experiences and less server load, as fewer resources are needed to handle multiple container instances.

Extra SIMD Instructions for AVX-512

Some processors pack extra muscle under the hood called AVX-512 instructions. .NET 8 taps into this power for tasks like image processing or scientific calculations, letting your code flex its biceps and crunch through numbers at lightning speed.
Imagine your processor as a team of construction workers, and AVX-512 as their power tools:
  1. Handling Tasks Individually (Traditional Processing):
    • Workers with regular tools handle tasks one at a time, like a single worker hammering nails sequentially.
    • Without AVX-512, your processor processes data elements individually, even for repetitive tasks.
  2. Unleashing the Power Tools (AVX-512 Instructions):
    • AVX-512 equips each worker with super-efficient power tools, like a nail gun firing multiple nails simultaneously.
    • This allows for parallel processing of multiple data elements at once, significantly accelerating tasks that involve repetitive operations.
  3. Turbocharged Construction (Accelerated Data Processing):
    • The whole team works together in sync, quickly constructing complex structures with incredible speed and efficiency.
    • Your code can process large datasets, perform complex calculations, and handle intricate image manipulations much faster than before.
  4. Key Benefits of AVX-512:
    • Up to 16x performance boost for supported operations
    • Dramatic acceleration for image processing, scientific computing, machine learning, and more
    • Unlocks the full potential of modern processors equipped with AVX-512 capabilities
A medical imaging application needs to process high-resolution X-ray scans quickly for real-time analysis. .NET 8’s AVX-512 support enables the application to leverage vectorized image processing algorithms. This results in significantly faster image processing times, allowing doctors to make diagnoses more rapidly and accurately.

Now Blazor is a Web UI Framework:

Blazor is one of ASP.NET Core advancements. It isn’t just for single-page wonders anymore. In .NET 8, it becomes a full-fledged web UI framework, letting you build interactive apps with both client-side and server-side rendering. This means blazing-fast interactivity for users while also keeping search engines happy with well-structured pages.
Imagine building a web application like constructing a restaurant:
  1. Single-page Blazor (Limited Cuisine):
    • Think of building a food truck. It serves delicious quick bites (client-side rendering) but lacks a dining area for full meals (server-side rendering).
    • Traditional Blazor focused on single-page applications (SPAs) with fast interactivity but limited SEO and complex navigation.
  2. Full-stack Blazor (Versatile Restaurant):
    • Now, picture constructing a full-fledged restaurant. You have both a bustling outdoor patio (client-side rendering) for quick snacks and a comfortable indoor dining area (server-side rendering) for complete meals.
    • .NET 8’s Full-stack Blazor empowers you to build interactive web apps with both:
      • Client-side rendering for immediate interactivity like dynamic charts and instant form validations.
      • Server-side rendering for SEO-friendly pages with pre-rendered content and rich navigation.
  3. Satisfied Customers and Search Engines (Win-win Scenario):
    • Customers enjoy immediate responsiveness and lightning-fast interactions on the patio.
    • Search engines discover and index the well-structured indoor dining area pages, boosting your app’s visibility and searchability.
  4. Key Benefits of Full-stack Blazor:
    • Blazing-fast interactivity with client-side rendering for dynamic elements.
    • Improved SEO and searchability with server-side pre-rendered pages.
    • Seamless navigation and complex layouts through server-side control.
    • Versatility to build a wider range of interactive web applications.
A real estate website uses Full-stack Blazor to create a dynamic search experience. Users can instantly filter and refine property listings on the client-side while also benefiting from SEO-optimized pages showcasing individual properties for better search engine visibility. This leads to a quicker and more user-friendly search experience, while search engines can easily crawl and index the website, driving more organic traffic.

Jiterpreter As a Caffeine Boost for Blazor WebAssembly:

Imagine Blazor WebAssembly apps, the ones that run in your browser, getting the caffeine boost. The Jiterpreter is like a shot of espresso, giving Blazor the ability to partially pre-compile parts of your code directly in the browser, leading to smoother animations and snappier responses.
Imagine your Blazor WebAssembly app as a coffee shop, and the Jiterpreter as a skilled barista:
  1. Serving Coffee Bean-By-Bean (Traditional Interpretation):
    • The barista grinds each coffee bean individually, brewing each cup fresh but taking time to prepare.
    • Traditional Blazor WebAssembly apps interpret code at runtime, leading to potential delays in execution, especially for complex tasks.
  2. Espresso Shots for Instant Energy (Jiterpreter in Action):
    • The barista introduces a new technique: pre-brewing espresso shots, ready for instant enjoyment.
    • The Jiterpreter partially pre-compiles parts of your Blazor code directly in the browser, like preparing espresso shots in advance.
    • This reduces the amount of code that needs to be interpreted at runtime, leading to faster execution and smoother performance.
  3. Smoother Sipping and Snappier Service (Enhanced User Experience):
    • Customers enjoy their coffee without long waits, experiencing a smoother and more satisfying experience.
    • Your Blazor WebAssembly app responds quickly to user interactions, renders animations fluidly, and delivers a more responsive and enjoyable user experience.
  4. Key Benefits of the Jiterpreter:
    • Faster startup times for Blazor WebAssembly apps
    • Smoother animations and transitions
    • More responsive user interactions
    • Reduced memory usage and improved performance for complex tasks
A gaming app built with Blazor WebAssembly uses the Jiterpreter to enhance gameplay performance. Characters move more fluidly, animations run seamlessly, and user input is processed instantly, creating a more immersive and enjoyable gaming experience.

Streamlined Identity for SPAs and Blazor:

Managing who can access what in your app can be a tangled mess. .NET 8 cuts through the knot with streamlined identity management for single-page applications (SPAs) and Blazor. Think easy cookie-based logins, pre-built APIs for token-based authentication, and a slick new UI for managing user roles and permissions.
Imagine managing app access like organizing a bustling event:
  1. Tangled Guest List (Traditional Identity Management):
    • Picture a disorganized party where guests fumble with different keys to enter different rooms, creating chaos and frustration.
    • Traditional identity management in SPAs and Blazor often involves complex setups, multiple libraries, and fragmented workflows.
  2. Streamlined Entry and Access (.NET 8’s Identity Tools):
    • Now, imagine a well-organized event with a streamlined admission process:
      • A central guest list (centralized identity management)
      • Greeters efficiently checking names and handing out all-access badges (cookie-based logins and token-based authentication)
      • Clear signage directing guests to authorized areas (role-based authorization)
      • A friendly concierge managing access permissions (UI for managing roles and permissions)
    • .NET 8 provides these tools for effortless identity management:
      • Centralized identity services for managing users, roles, and permissions
      • Cookie-based logins for convenient authentication
      • Pre-built APIs for token-based authentication in modern SPAs and Blazor
      • A user-friendly UI for managing roles and permissions
  3. Smooth Flow and Secure Access (Enhanced User Experience and Security):
    • Guests easily navigate the event, enjoying authorized areas without hassle.
    • Developers create secure and accessible apps with simplified identity workflows.
    • Users experience seamless logins, appropriate access levels, and a secure environment.
  4. Key Benefits of Streamlined Identity:
    • Simplified setup and management of identity services
    • Improved developer productivity and reduced code maintenance Enhanced user experience with effortless logins and clear access rules
    • Strengthened security with centralized identity management and token-based authentication
A healthcare app built with Blazor uses .NET 8’s identity features to securely manage patient records. Patients easily log in with cookies and access their personal data based on their roles and permissions. Administrators efficiently manage user roles and access levels through the intuitive UI. The app maintains compliance with healthcare privacy regulations through robust identity controls.

Other Noteworthy Additions:

  • Interface hierarchies serialization: Data is king in the digital world, and sometimes it wears intricate crowns of inheritance and interfaces. .NET 8 now understands these complex data structures and can serialize them faithfully, making it easier to share data between different parts of your app.
  • Streaming deserialization APIs: Imagine gobbling down a giant pizza, one slice at a time. Instead of trying to swallow the whole thing at once, new streaming deserialization APIs let you process large JSON payloads piece by piece, chewing on each bite (data chunk) before moving on to the next, making efficient use of memory and processing power.
  • Native AOT compilation progress: Ahead-of-Time (AOT) compilation bakes your app into a standalone executable, like a self-contained cake ready to be served on any machine. .NET 8 expands AOT support to more platforms and shrinks the size of AOT applications on Linux, making them lighter and nimbler to deploy.
A .NET Developer’s Guide to CancellationToken: Beyond the Basics

A .NET Developer’s Guide to CancellationToken: Beyond the Basics

CancellationToken NET_
CancellationToken NET

A Developer’s Guide to CancellationToken: Beyond the Basics

Canceling tasks can be a powerful tool, and in the .NET world, Microsoft has provided a standardized solution with CancellationToken that goes far beyond its original purpose.
Traditionally, developers tackled cancellation with various ad-hoc implementations, leading to inconsistent and complex code. Recognizing this, Microsoft introduced CancellationToken, built on lower-level threading and communication primitives, to offer a unified approach.
But my initial exploration, diving deep into the .NET source code, revealed CancellationToken’s true potential: it’s not just for stopping processes. It can handle a wider range of scenarios, from monitoring application states and implementing timeouts with diverse triggers to facilitating inter-process communication through flags.

Standardizing Cancellation in .NET 4

.NET 4 introduced the Task Parallel Library (TPL), a powerful framework for parallel and asynchronous programming. Alongside this, CancellationToken was introduced to provide a standardized and efficient means of canceling asynchronous operations. Standardizing cancellation mechanisms was crucial for promoting consistency and simplicity across different asynchronous tasks and workflows in the .NET ecosystem.
In .NET 4, CancellationToken became an integral part of the TPL, offering a unified way to signal cancellation to asynchronous operations. This standardization aimed to enhance code readability, maintainability, and overall developer experience. Here are some key aspects of standardizing cancellation in .NET 4:

Standardizing Cancellation in .NET 4

.NET 4 introduced the Task Parallel Library (TPL), a powerful framework for parallel and asynchronous programming. Alongside this, CancellationToken was introduced to provide a standardized and efficient means of canceling asynchronous operations. Standardizing cancellation mechanisms was crucial for promoting consistency and simplicity across different asynchronous tasks and workflows in the .NET ecosystem.
In .NET 4, CancellationToken became an integral part of the TPL, offering a unified way to signal cancellation to asynchronous operations. This standardization aimed to enhance code readability, maintainability, and overall developer experience. Here are some key aspects of standardizing cancellation in .NET 4:

1. CancellationTokenSource:

The introduction of CancellationTokenSource was a pivotal step. It serves as a factory for creating CancellationToken instances and allows the application to signal cancellation to multiple asynchronous operations simultaneously.
Developers can use CancellationTokenSource to create a CancellationToken and share it among various asynchronous tasks, ensuring consistent cancellation across different components.

// Creating a CancellationTokenSource
CancellationTokenSource cts = new CancellationTokenSource();

// Using the token in an asynchronous task
Task.Run(() => SomeAsyncOperation(cts.Token), cts.Token);

2. Task-Based Asynchronous Pattern (TAP):

.NET 4 embraced the Task-based asynchronous pattern (TAP), where asynchronous methods return Task or Task<TResult> objects. CancellationToken can be seamlessly integrated into TAP, enabling developers to cancel asynchronous tasks easily.
TAP encourages the use of CancellationToken as a standard parameter in asynchronous method signatures, fostering a consistent and predictable approach to cancellation.

public async Task<int> PerformAsyncOperation(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
// Some asynchronous operation
await Task.Delay(5000, cancellationToken);

// Return a result
return 42;

3. Task.Run and Task.Factory.StartNew:

The Task.Run and Task.Factory.StartNew methods, commonly used for parallel and asynchronous execution, accept a CancellationToken as a parameter. This enables developers to associate cancellation tokens with parallel tasks, ensuring that they can be canceled when needed.

CancellationTokenSource cts = new CancellationTokenSource();

// Running a task with CancellationToken
Task.Run(() => SomeParallelOperation(cts.Token), cts.Token);

4. Cancellation in LINQ Queries:

LINQ queries and operations on collections can be integrated with CancellationToken, allowing developers to cancel long-running queries or transformations gracefully.

CancellationTokenSource cts = new CancellationTokenSource();

// Using CancellationToken in LINQ
var result = from item in collection.AsParallel().WithCancellation(cts.Token)
where SomeCondition(item)
select item;

5. OperationCanceledException:

The standardization also introduced the OperationCanceledException, which is thrown when an operation is canceled via a CancellationToken. This exception can be caught and handled to implement custom logic in response to cancellation.

// Some asynchronous operation
await SomeAsyncOperation(cts.Token);
catch (OperationCanceledException ex)
// Handle cancellation
Console.WriteLine($"Operation canceled: {ex.Message}");

6. Cancelation in Async Methods:

Asynchronous methods in .NET 4 can easily support cancellation by accepting a CancellationToken parameter and checking for cancellation at appropriate points in their execution.

public async Task<int> PerformAsyncOperation(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
// Check for cancellation before proceeding

 // Some asynchronous operation
await Task.Delay(5000, cancellationToken);

// Return a result
return 42;

7. CancellationCallbacks:

CancellationToken supports the registration of callback methods that are invoked when cancellation is requested. This allows developers to perform cleanup or additional actions when a cancellation request is received.

CancellationTokenSource cts = new CancellationTokenSource();

// Registering a callback
cts.Token.Register(() => Console.WriteLine("Cancellation requested."));

// Triggering cancellation

By standardizing cancellation through the integration of CancellationToken into various components of the .NET framework, developers gained a consistent and reliable mechanism for handling asynchronous task cancellations. This not only improved the overall developer experience but also contributed to the creation of more robust and responsive applications. The standardization laid the foundation for further advancements in asynchronous programming models in subsequent versions of the .NET framework.

CancellationToken Class` Interfaces

In .NET, the CancellationToken class provides methods and properties to check for cancellation requests and register callbacks to be executed upon cancellation. There are also interfaces related to cancellation, such as ICancelable, ICancelableAsync, and ICancellationTokenProvider. Here are examples of how these interfaces can be used in conjunction with CancellationToken:

1. ICancelable:

The ICancelable interface represents an object that can be canceled. This can be useful when creating custom classes that need to support cancellation.

public interface ICancelable
void Cancel();

public class CustomCancelableOperation : ICancelable
private CancellationTokenSource cts = new CancellationTokenSource();

 public void Cancel()

 public void PerformOperation()
// Check for cancellation
if (cts.Token.IsCancellationRequested)
Console.WriteLine("Operation canceled.");

 // Perform the operation
Console.WriteLine("Operation in progress...");

2. ICancelableAsync:

The ICancelableAsync interface extends cancellation support to asynchronous operations. It is particularly useful when dealing with asynchronous tasks.

public interface ICancelableAsync
Task PerformAsyncOperation(CancellationToken cancellationToken);

public class CustomCancelableAsyncOperation : ICancelableAsync
public async Task PerformAsyncOperation(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
// Check for cancellation before proceeding

 // Perform asynchronous operation
await Task.Delay(5000, cancellationToken);

 Console.WriteLine("Async operation completed.");

3. ICancellationTokenProvider:

The ICancellationTokenProvider interface represents an object that provides a CancellationToken. This can be useful when you want to expose a cancellation token without exposing the entire CancellationTokenSource.

public interface ICancellationTokenProvider
CancellationToken Token { get; }

public class CustomCancellationTokenProvider : ICancellationTokenProvider
private CancellationTokenSource cts = new CancellationTokenSource();

 public CancellationToken Token => cts.Token;

 public void Cancel()

Practical and Illustrative Examples of Using CancellationToken


Practical examples of using CancellationToken showcase its versatility in managing asynchronous operations, parallel processing, long-running tasks, and implementing timeouts. Here are four scenarios where CancellationToken proves valuable:

1. Cancellation in Asynchronous Web Requests:

Cancelling an asynchronous HTTP request using HttpClient and CancellationToken:

public async Task<string> DownloadWebsiteAsync(string url, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
using (var client = new HttpClient())
// Make an asynchronous GET request with cancellation support
var response = await client.GetAsync(url, cancellationToken);

 // Check for cancellation before proceeding

 // Process the downloaded content
return await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
catch (OperationCanceledException ex)
// Handle cancellation-related logic
Console.WriteLine($"Download operation canceled: {ex.Message}");
return string.Empty;
catch (Exception ex)
// Handle other exceptions
Console.WriteLine($"An error occurred: {ex.Message}");
return string.Empty;

2. Cancellation in Parallel Processing:

Using Parallel.ForEach with CancellationToken to cancel parallel processing:

public void ProcessItemsInParallel(IEnumerable<string> items, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
Parallel.ForEach(items, new ParallelOptions { CancellationToken = cancellationToken }, item =>
// Check for cancellation before processing each item

 // Process the item
Console.WriteLine($"Processing item: {item}");
catch (OperationCanceledException ex)
// Handle cancellation-related logic
Console.WriteLine($"Parallel processing canceled: {ex.Message}");

3. Cancellation in Long-Running Task:

Cancelling a long-running task with periodic checks for cancellation:

public async Task LongRunningTask(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
for (int i = 0; i < 1000; i++)
// Check for cancellation at each iteration

 // Simulate some work
await Task.Delay(100, cancellationToken);

 Console.WriteLine("Long-running task completed successfully.");
catch (OperationCanceledException ex)
// Handle cancellation-related logic
Console.WriteLine($"Long-running task canceled: {ex.Message}");

4. Cancellation with Timeout:

Cancelling an operation if it takes too long using CancellationToken with a timeout:

public async Task<string> PerformOperationWithTimeout(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
using (var cts = CancellationTokenSource.CreateLinkedTokenSource(cancellationToken))
cts.CancelAfter(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(10)); // Set a timeout of 10 seconds

// Perform operation with timeout
return await SomeLongRunningOperation(cts.Token);
catch (OperationCanceledException ex)
// Handle cancellation-related logic
Console.WriteLine($"Operation with timeout canceled: {ex.Message}");
return string.Empty;

These examples demonstrate how CancellationToken provides a toolbox of solutions that are useful outside of its intended use case. The tools can come in handy in many scenarios that involve interprocess flag-based communication. Whether we are faced with timeouts, notifications, or one-time events, we can fall back on this elegant, Microsoft-tested implementation.

Ensemble Machine Learning Techniques: Definition of Ensemble in AI

Ensemble Machine Learning Techniques: Definition of Ensemble in AI

Ensemble Methods in Artificial Intelligence
Ensemble Methods in Artificial Intelligence

Ensemble Methods in Artificial Intelligence: A Comprehensive Guide to Ensemble Learning

In the ever-changing scene of artificial intelligence, machine learning techniques are constantly being developed to handle difficult problems and increase accuracy in prediction. However, ensemble learning turns out to be a powerful technique, combining the strengths of multiple models and getting superior results.

In this article I will explore the concept of ensemble methods in-depth, examining both basic and advanced techniques together with boosting algorithms; and bagging (bootstrap aggregating) codes which is essentially a form of averaging. Lastly, we’ll provide a comparative look at several popular machine learning ensemble methods.

Definition of Ensemble Learning and Examples

What is an ensemble? Ensemble learning involves building a complex model by combining many basic models. The basic idea is that combining predictions from different models often gives more accurate, robust results. Some typical types of ensemble methods include combining decision trees, neural networks or other machine learning algorithms to get better overall predictive performance.

There are a couple of machine learning technique examples implemented in Python using popular libraries like scikit-learn:

1. Random Forest Classifier

from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score

# Load your dataset (replace X and y with your features and labels)
# X, y = ...

# Split the dataset into training and testing sets
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)

# Create a Random Forest Classifier ensemble
rf_classifier = RandomForestClassifier(n_estimators=100, random_state=42)

# Train the ensemble on the training data
rf_classifier.fit(X_train, y_train)

# Make predictions on the test set
predictions = rf_classifier.predict(X_test)

# Evaluate the accuracy of the ensemble
accuracy = accuracy_score(y_test, predictions)
print(f"Random Forest Classifier Accuracy: {accuracy}")

2. Gradient Boosting Regressor

from sklearn.ensemble import GradientBoostingRegressor
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error

# Load your regression dataset (replace X and y with your features and target variable)
# X, y = ...

# Split the dataset into training and testing sets
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)

# Create a Gradient Boosting Regressor ensemble
gb_regressor = GradientBoostingRegressor(n_estimators=100, learning_rate=0.1, random_state=42)

# Train the ensemble on the training data
gb_regressor.fit(X_train, y_train)

# Make predictions on the test set
predictions = gb_regressor.predict(X_test)

# Evaluate the performance of the ensemble using Mean Squared Error
mse = mean_squared_error(y_test, predictions)
print(f"Gradient Boosting Regressor Mean Squared Error: {mse}")

In both examples, you should insert your dataset and target variable instead of the placeholder comments (# Load Your Dataset, # Replace X and y). The examples below use scikit-learn, a popular Python library. Other libraries and frameworks have implementations of ensemble machine learning techniques too.

Which Ensemble Method is Best in Artificial Intelligence?

There is no indisputable answer to what ensemble method is the best in AI: Different ensembling methods have their advantages and disadvantages depending on the problem, data set used, criterion by which results are judged. However, there are some of the most popular basic and advanced machine learning techniques and widely used methods:

  • Bagging
  • Stacking
  • Boosting:
  • Blending
  • Max Voting
  • Averaging
  • Weighted Average

All of these methods have their similarities and differences.



  • The goal is to increase the ensemble’s generalization performance by lowering its variance, bias, or error rate in individual models;
  • Finally, all these can be applied to different kinds of problems — methods for classification or regression; methods for clustering;
  • They can all make use of different types and complementary models to capture various aspects of the data.



  • They differ in the way they produce, choose, and combine models. Some ensemble methods employ random sampling; some use sequential ensemble learning, and others cross-validation;
  • The difference lies in the complexity and computational cost of ensembling. Other methods require more training time, memory or communication;
  • These two differ in terms of the suitability and robustness of their ensemble. In general, different methods perform well or poorly depending on the problem at hand and available data as well as evaluation criteria.

These different ensemble methods of machine learning are extremely powerful and multifaceted artificial intelligence technologies that boost the accuracy and efficiency of various kinds of machine learning ensemble models by combining them in all sorts of ways. But there is no silver bullet, and each method has its merits and demerit.

Basic Ensemble Techniques

2.1. Max Voting

Max voting is a simple ensemble technique where the estimate of each model involved in forecasting is gathered, and then we choose whichever result takes the most votes. This method works well for classification problems. It is also simple and powerful in decision-making.

2.2. Averaging

Averaging means taking the average of predictions made by various models. This machine learning technique is especially advantageous for regression tasks, making the final prediction smoother and more stable.

2.3. Weighted Average

Weighted averaging. Each model’s prediction is multiplied by a fixed weight before calculating the total average. This way more weight can be given to particular models because of their performance, or for expertise in a specific area.

Improved Ensemble Techniques

3.1. Stacking

Stacking brings in a meta-model that represents the combined predictions of several base models. The meta-model learns to combine the individual models ‘predictions, so as to improve performance overall. One is its ability to deal with data varying in complexity and nuance.

3.2. Blending

Like stacking, blending combines the predictions from several models by calculating a weighted average. But blending usually requires dividing the training set and using one half to train base models, retaining the other for training of a combined model.

3.3. Bagging

Bagging, or bootstrap aggregating, is a technique that obtains multiple subsets of the training dataset through repeated sampling. These subsets are used to train base models, whose predictions are combined through averaging or voting. Random Forest is a representative bagging algorithm.

3.4. Boosting

In other words, boosting trains weak models sequentially. Each new model is supposed to fix the errors made by its predecessor. AdaBoost, Gradient Boosting, and XGboost are examples of a popular boosting ensemble algorithm. Boosting can be used to raise accuracy and reduce bias.

Boosting and Bagging Algorithms

Ensemble methods leverage various boosting and bagging algorithms, each with its unique characteristics. Table 1 provides a comparative overview of key ensemble techniques.


Max Voting


Weighted Average






The final prediction is determined by majority vote.

The final prediction is the average of all these predictions.

Each model’s prediction is weighted in a specific way

Each model’s prediction is weighted in a specific way

Base models’ predictions are combined using a simple model.

Many models are trained on the various subsets of data.

The approach used here is to train sequentially, focusing on misclassified cases.


Simple, easy to implement

Smoothens predictions reduce overfitting

Allows customization of model influence

Captures complex relationships, improves accuracy

Simple, effective, avoids overfitting

Reduces overfitting, improves stability

Improves accuracy, reduces bias


No consideration was given to differences in confidence between individual models

Vulnerable to outliers

Weights must be carefully tuned

Complexity in implementation and the danger of overfitting

Requires careful dataset splitting

Little impact in reducing model bias.

Sensitive to noisy data, prone to overfitting

Max Voting and Averaging are easy but can neglect subtleties. Customizable, but needs fine adjustment. Stacking is highly complicated and prone to overfitting while Blending is a very effective alternative. By bagging one reduces overfitting, and by Boosting the accuracy improves but is sensitive to noise. The selection depends on the specific needs of the modeling ensemble techniques and dataset.

Benefits of the Ensembling Methods in Machine Learning Strategies

These numerous advantages are precisely why ensemble methods of machine learning have been adopted in so many different types of AI applications. Here are the key advantages of employing ensemble methods:

  1. Improved Accuracy: Through ensemble methods several models are combined, using different perspectives and learning patterns. This usually leads to better predictive accuracy than individual models, avoiding overfitting and bias.
  2. Robustness and Stability: Ensembling methods improve the robustness of a whole system by combining predictions from various models. They do better at dealing with noise and outliers, leading to more stable and reliable forecasts.
  3. Reduced Overfitting: But the ensemble machine learning techniques, especially bagging methods such as Random Forests reduce overfitting by averaging or voting across many different models. It helps develop a more generalized model that works well for unseen data.
  4. Versatility: Machine learning ensemble methods are various and can be combined with different types of ensembles, including decision trees, neural networks, or support vector machines. It is this adaptability which makes them applicable to a wide variety of problems.
  5. Effective Handling of Complexity: Advanced ensemble methods in machine learning such as stacking and reinforcement can reflect complex interrelationships within the data. They can model complicated patterns that single models may struggle to understand.
  6. Risk Diversification: Ensemble methods spread the risk of poor performance among several models. If one model doesn’t generalize well to some of the instances or features, this only has a small impact on an overall ensemble.
  7. Compatibility with Different Algorithms: Practitioners can combine models built using different algorithms through the utilization of ensemble techniques. This flexibility allows different approaches to learning within one ensemble.
  8. Enhanced Generalization: Ensemble techniques of machine learning usually produce better generalization on unknown data. Through its combination of models with differing perspectives, the ensemble has a greater chance of capturing patterns in data; thus it is more capable of making accurate predictions on new test cases.
  9. Mitigation of Model Bias: Boosting ensemble machine learning algorithms are a particularly effective way to reduce bias by training models in sequence, each concentrating on rectifying the wrong answers of its predecessors. This iterative process makes the predictive results of multi model machine learning more balanced and accurate.
  10. Increased Model Confidence: Ensemble techniques in machine learning can indicate the confidence one might put in a prediction. Practitioners can use weighted averaging: giving stronger confidence to models that repeatedly perform well, to produce better predictions.
  11. Facilitation of Model Interpretability: Some ensemble methods, such as Random Forests, provide insight into feature importance. This helps us understand the contribution of each feature to overall predictive performance.


      The ability of ensemble machine learning Python methods to mobilize the collective intelligence of multiple models makes this a compelling approach for meeting challenges and solving complex problems in all manner Of human-AI/machine learning interactions.

    Final Thoughts

    An ensemble classifier is a versatile and strong strategy in AI. Combining different methods, ensemble machine learning techniques improve predictive accuracy and avoid overreach. They also provide robust solutions to complex problems. The art of ensemble methods continues to sweep the landscape of artificial intelligence through basic techniques like max voting and averaging, or by using advanced machine learning procedures such as stacking or boosting.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    1. What is the biggest advantage of ensemble learning? Combining multiple models, machine learning ensemble methods can increase overall forecast accuracy and reliability in situations where each model alone may not work.
    2. How do boosting algorithms work? Sequential treatments sequentially train weak models, with each model addressing the done by its forebears. This cyclic process increases the ensemble’s accuracy as a whole.
    3. Are ensemble methods generally applicable to all machine learning problems? Nevertheless, although ensemble methods have many applications, their efficacy may differ across problems. Thus it is necessary to experiment and test performance gains in each case.
    4. How do I select the proper ensemble technique for my problem? selection of ensemble technique will depend upon the nature and characteristics of your problem, the data sets involved. It is often a case of trial and error, deciding the best method through practical experience.

    Crowdsource: Definition and Role of Crowdsourced Websites in QA

    Crowdsource: Definition and Role of Crowdsourced Websites in QA

    Crowdsource testing
    Crowdsource testing

    Crowdsource Definition: What is Crowdsource? What is Crowd Test Designed for?

    Crowdsourced testing represents a method in software evaluation wherein a considerable multitude of individuals, frequently hailing from various geographical locations, diverse backgrounds, and varied proficiency levels, participate in testing a software product or application.

    This article helps to understand the crowdsource definition in terms of software development. The fundamental concept driving crowdsourced testing revolves around harnessing the broad spectrum and expansiveness of the collective group to uncover defects, usability challenges, and input that could elude detection through conventional testing approaches.

    How Is the Crowdsource Testing Performed?

    Crowdsourcing software testing can be done in various ways, such as:
    • Crowdsourcing platforms: These digital platforms serve as intermediaries, linking software developers or evaluators with a community of testers capable of undertaking diverse testing assignments, ranging from functional and usability testing to security and localization testing. Compensation for testers typically correlates with the quantity and quality of identified bugs or completed tasks. Instances of such crowdsourcing platforms include Testlio, uTest, Testbirds, and similar platforms.

    • Security Vulnerability Rewards: These initiatives provide incentives, often in the form of monetary compensation, to individuals who successfully identify and report security weaknesses in a software product or system. The magnitude of rewards is contingent upon the seriousness and repercussions of the discovered vulnerability. Instances of platforms facilitating such security vulnerability reward programs include HackerOne, Bugcrowd, Synack, and similar platforms.

    • Crowdsourced Challenges: These events entail competitions that task a diverse group with resolving a particular issue or devising a solution for a software product or application. Contestants have the option to submit their proposed solutions and gain insights from both the organizers and fellow participants. Outstanding solutions are typically acknowledged with prizes, acclaim, or potential opportunities. Illustrations of platforms hosting crowdsourced challenges include Topcoder, Innocentive, Kaggle, and similar.

    Types of Crowdsourced Websites

    There are many kinds of crowd testing sites. It depends on the goal, scope, and type of the company-provider. Some of the common crowdsourced testing companies are:
    • Crowd-generated Content Platforms: These online platforms empower the collective to generate, modify, or organize content spanning articles, videos, images, podcasts, and more. The produced content finds application across diverse spheres, encompassing entertainment, education, information dissemination, marketing, and beyond. Instances of platforms facilitating crowd-generated content include Wikipedia, YouTube, Medium, and similar websites.

    • Collective Data Acquisition: These companies empower individuals to gather, categorize, or provide annotations for data, spanning text, images, audio, video, and more. The compiled data serves multifaceted objectives, including applications in machine learning, artificial intelligence, research endeavors, analytical pursuits, and beyond. Illustrations of platforms facilitating collective data acquisition include Amazon Mechanical Turk, Figure Eight, Zooniverse, and similar platforms.

    • Creative Concept Formation: These platforms enable the collective to formulate, disseminate, or endorse concepts, including novel products, features, services, solutions, and more. The concepts hold applicability across diverse objectives, such as fostering innovation, enhancing existing frameworks, and addressing challenges. Instances of websites facilitating creative concept formation include Quirky, Ideascale, OpenIDEO, and so on.

    • Financial Support Platforms: These online platforms provide opportunities for the community to finance or endorse initiatives, purposes, or individuals, ranging from emerging businesses and philanthropic organizations to creative talents, and more. The financial backing can take diverse forms, including contributions, incentives, ownership shares, loans, and so forth. Instances of platforms facilitating financial support include Kickstarter, Indiegogo, and GoFundMe.

    Who Uses the Crowdsourced Software Testing?

    Crowd testing can be used by anyone who needs to test a software product or application, such as:
    • Developers of Software: Employing the method of collaborative testing by the crowd, software developers can examine their code, identify glitches, enhance overall quality, and receive input from actual users. Additionally, they have the opportunity to use collaborative software testing to assess their products on a variety of devices, platforms, browsers, languages, and more.

    • Testers of Software: Enhance their testing methods by incorporating crowdsourced testing, tapping into a diverse pool of testers. This approach reduces both testing costs and time. Additionally, testers can learn new skills, tools, and techniques from the crowd.

    • Soft Technology firms: Have the option to employ collaborative software testing as a pre-launch strategy to evaluate their products, guarantee customer contentment, and secure a competitive advantage. Additionally, they can leverage crowdsourced software testing to outsource their testing requirements, including the assessment of new features, updates, or product versions.

    Why Do You Need Crowdsource Testing?

    This may become evident from the Crowdsource definition, that it provides many benefits, such as:
    • Diversification: Crowd sourced testing taps into a varied tester pool, bringing diverse perspectives and experiences to uncover bugs, usability issues, and feedback often overlooked by traditional methods.

    • Scalability: Easily adaptable to project needs, crowdsource testing can scale up or down based on factors like project size, complexity, or urgency. This flexibility aids in meeting deadlines, managing workloads, and adapting to changing testing requirements.

    • Cost-effectiveness: By compensating testers based on results rather than hours worked, crowdsource testing reduces overall testing costs. This cost-effective approach eliminates the need for a dedicated testing team, along with associated expenses like hiring, training, and maintaining testing infrastructure.

    • Quality: Crowdsourcing testing contributes to software quality by identifying and reporting bugs, usability issues, and valuable feedback. This, in turn, enhances customer satisfaction, loyalty, and retention, bolstering the software company’s reputation and revenue.

    App Crowdsource Definition: What is App Crowdsourcing?

    A crowdsourced app is a form of crowd sourcing that involves using the crowd to create, test, or improve mobile applications. This process can be performed in various ways, including:
    • Development of crowdsourced apps: This involves engaging the collective in the creation stages of an app, encompassing activities like design, coding, or prototyping. The community can actively participate in either building an app from the ground up or contributing to ongoing app projects. Platforms facilitating app development include Appy Pie, Thunkable, App Inventor, and others.

    • App Evaluation: In this scenario, the community actively participates in assessing the app, identifying bugs, evaluating usability, and providing constructive feedback. This engagement can occur either before or after the app’s market release. Platforms facilitating app evaluation include TestFairy, TestFlight, and Beta Family.

    • Enhancing Apps: In this context, the collective actively contributes to refining the app, offering suggestions for new features, functionalities, or improvements. Participants can express their ideas, opinions, or votes to influence app enhancements, or they can directly implement their proposed solutions. Platforms facilitating app enhancement include UserVoice, Feature Upvote, GitHub, and similar services.

    What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Crowdsourcing?

    The crowdsource definition explains it as a technique for acquiring information, concepts, or resolutions from an extensive and varied assembly of individuals, typically facilitated through digital platforms.

    The practice of collaborative sourcing brings forth various merits and drawbacks, contingent upon the circumstances, objectives, and nature of the collaborative sourcing initiative. Below, we delve into several typical pros and cons associated with collaborative sourcing.

    Advantages of Crowdsourcing:

    • Variety: Engaging in crowdsourcing offers access to an extensive and varied group of individuals, each contributing diverse perspectives, backgrounds, and inclinations to the endeavor. This diversity facilitates the discovery of additional insights, creativity, and feedback that might elude conventional methods.

    • Adaptability: Crowdsourcing exhibits the capacity to adjust in scale, either expanding or contracting based on the project’s requirements, encompassing factors like size, intricacy, or immediacy. This adaptability aids in meeting project deadlines, managing workloads, and addressing evolving project specifications.

    • Cost-efficiency: Embracing crowdsourcing can result in cost savings for the project, as contributors are typically compensated based on their delivered outcomes rather than hours worked. This approach can lead to reduced expenses related to hiring, training, or maintaining a dedicated team. It also helps in curtailing costs associated with procuring, leasing, or maintaining equipment and infrastructure.

    Disadvantages of Crowdsourcing:

    • Assurance of Excellence: Maintaining the quality and uniformity of work in crowdsourcing presents a challenge due to varying levels of skills, knowledge, or motivation among participants. This diversity may result in errors, inaccuracies, or fraudulent activities. Consequently, implementing a quality control mechanism, such as verification, validation, or rating, becomes essential to scrutinize and assess the work contributed by participants.

    • Effective Communication: Managing communication in crowdsourcing proves challenging due to the diverse languages, cultures, and preferences of participants. This diversity may lead to misunderstandings, conflicts, or communication delays. Therefore, the implementation of a communication platform, such as chat, email, or forum, is crucial to facilitate and streamline communication with participants.

    • Security Concerns: Ensuring the security and privacy of data in crowdsourcing is challenging due to diverse participant intentions, ethics, and loyalties, raising the risk of leaks or breaches. To address this, crowdsourcing projects require a robust security policy encompassing encryption, authentication, and non-disclosure agreements to safeguard and monitor project data, information, or intellectual property.

    Most Popular Crowdsourced Testing Websites In 2023

    Here is a comparison table of some of the most popular crowdsourcing testing websites in 2023:



    Global App Testing


    Test IO


    Testing Focus

    Functional, usability, localization, mobile, live stream, payments, etc.

    Functional, usability, localization, performance, security, etc.

    Functional, usability, localization, performance, security, etc.

    Functional, usability, performance, security, etc.


    Security Measures

    Encryption, authentication, non-disclosure agreement, etc.

    Encryption, authentication, non-disclosure agreement, etc.

    Encryption, authentication, non-disclosure agreement, etc.

    Encryption, authentication, non-disclosure agreement, etc.

    Encryption, authentication, non-disclosure agreement, etc.


    Global network of expert testers, robust client services, flexible testing options

    Global community of professional testers, fast and reliable results, integration with popular tools

    Curated network of qualified testers, comprehensive testing reports, dedicated project management

    Large and diverse pool of testers, real device and browser coverage, pay-per-bug pricing

    Vetted network of security researchers, continuous testing, transparent reporting


    Requires quality control mechanism, communication platform, etc.

    Requires quality control mechanism, communication platform, etc.

    Requires quality control mechanism, communication platform, etc.

    Requires quality control mechanism, communication platform, etc.

    Requires quality control mechanism, communication platform, etc.

    How to Choose the Best Crowdsourced Testing Website For Your Project?

    Determining the ideal crowd sourced testing platform for your project lacks a one-size-fits-all solution. Various testing websites offer distinct features, services, and pricing models. Nevertheless, several aspects merit consideration when selecting the most suitable crowdsourced testing website for your specific project.
    • The nature of testing required, encompassing aspects like functional, usability, localization, performance, and security, among others.

    • The scale and intricacy of your testing initiative, including factors such as the volume of test cases, scenarios, and testing environments.

    • The financial and temporal aspects of your testing endeavor, comprising the allocated budget, testing cycle duration, and testing iteration frequency.

    • The credibility and dependability of the chosen crowdsourced websites, considering factors like reputation, reviews, ratings, clientele, and customer services.

    • The attributes and advantages offered by the crowdsourced platform, such as the extent and diversity of the tester pool, coverage of real devices and browsers, integration with popular tools, payment model, and reporting format.

    • The potential challenges and limitations of the crowd sourced testing platform, taking into account aspects like the quality control mechanism, communication platform, and security policy.

    Utilizing these criteria, you have the opportunity to assess and compare various crowdsourced testing companies. By doing so, you can identify the company that aligns most effectively with your testing requirements, financial considerations, and expectations. It’s also advisable to seek a complimentary trial or demonstration from the crowdsourced testing platform to gain firsthand exposure to their services and performance.


    Crowdsourced testing is a form of software testing that leverages the power of the crowd to find and report bugs, usability issues, and feedback for a software product or application. Now you understand the crowdsource definition very clearly and realize that crowd testing offers many benefits, such as diversity, scalability, cost-effectiveness, and quality. However, it has some disadvantages, such as quality control, communication, and security. Therefore, it is important to choose crowdsourced websites that suit your needs, budget, and expectations.